The sulphate attack on concrete
When it comes to building long-lasting infrastructure, there is simply no substitute for concrete. However some environments present special challenges, to which Holcim responds with innovation. Sulphates make a good case in point, particularly in aggressive chemical environments.
Typically, the aggressive ground conditions of coastal areas, wastewater treatment plants and zones with mining activities can damage concrete structures. Water with high sulphate content permeates the building surface and reacts with calcium hydroxide and tricalcium aluminate particularly when the ground concentration of sulphate is above 1,000 ppm, thus eroding the concrete structures.